A street sweeper truck is a type of vehicle used to clear away trash, dirt, and other undesired things from public spaces like streets. Here’s how it works:

Brushing: The truck initially clears the street of dirt and debris using a series of revolving brushes. The truck’s front is where the brushes are housed, and they might have nylon or wire bristles. High-speed rotation causes them to rotate, removing dirt and debris from the road’s surface and pushing it in the direction of the truck’s centre.

Vaccuming: The trash is then vacuumed up and placed in a hopper or bin at the back of the truck after being forced towards the centre of the vehicle. A centrifugal fan or a positive displacement blower may be used by the vacuum system to generate suction.

Water Spraying: The street sweeper truck may also employ a water spraying system to aid in removing dirt and other roadside detritus. Before using the brushes and vacuum, water is sprayed onto the road surface to assist minimise dust and make the trash simpler to gather.

Disposal: The vehicle must get rid of the accumulated trash once the hopper or bin is full. While some street sweepers can automatically empty their hoppers onto bigger collecting vehicles, others need to manually empty their hoppers.

Generally, a street sweeper vehicle collects and removes dirt and debris from public places by utilising a mix of sweeping, vacuuming, and water spraying.

Bucher C202 Street Sweeper

Street Sweeper – Brushing Mechanisim

The brushing mechanism is a key component of a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system. The brushes are typically made of nylon or wire bristles, and are mounted on a cylindrical head that rotates rapidly as the truck moves forward. The brushes can be adjusted to different heights, so they can sweep debris from different types of surfaces, such as asphalt, concrete, or cobblestones.

The brushing action works by agitating the surface of the road, lifting dirt and debris from the surface and moving it towards the center of the truck. The bristles on the brush head are designed to be stiff enough to dislodge dirt and debris, but not so stiff that they damage the road surface.

Street sweepers may use one or more brushes, depending on the size and type of the vehicle. Some street sweepers have a single, large cylindrical brush that covers the entire width of the vehicle, while others have multiple brushes that work in tandem to cover a larger area. In either case, the brushes are designed to rotate at high speeds, typically between 100 and 600 rpm, to provide the necessary sweeping force.

The effectiveness of the brushing mechanism depends on a number of factors, such as the speed of the brushes, the type and stiffness of the bristles, and the height and angle of the brush head. In addition, the brushing mechanism may be accompanied by a water spraying system, which wets the road surface and helps to loosen dirt and debris, making it easier for the brushes to pick up.

Overall, the brushing mechanism is a crucial part of a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system, working in tandem with the vacuum and water spraying mechanisms to efficiently remove dirt and debris from public areas.

Street Sweeper Brushes

The vacuuming mechanism is another critical component of a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system. Once the brushing mechanism has loosened and agitated the debris and dirt, the vacuum system is used to collect and store it in the hopper or bin located at the back of the vehicle.

The vacuum system typically consists of a centrifugal fan or a positive displacement blower, which creates suction that draws air and debris into the hopper. The fan or blower is driven by a motor, which can be powered by the truck’s engine or a separate auxiliary engine. The suction generated by the fan or blower is strong enough to lift dirt, leaves, rocks, and other debris off the road surface and into the hopper.

To ensure that the vacuum system is effective, the hopper is designed to be airtight and leak-proof, so that no debris or dust escapes back into the environment. The hopper may be made of metal, plastic, or a combination of both, depending on the type of debris being collected and the size and capacity of the street sweeper truck.

Some street sweepers may also have a filtration system to separate fine dust and particulate matter from the air before it is expelled from the vehicle. This is typically done using a series of filters, such as cyclones and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, which trap the dust and prevent it from being released into the air.

The hopper or bin used to store the collected debris may be emptied manually or automatically, depending on the design of the street sweeper truck. Some vehicles may have a tipping mechanism that allows the hopper to be lifted and emptied into a larger collection vehicle, while others may require the hopper to be manually opened and emptied.

Overall, the vacuuming mechanism is a crucial part of a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system, allowing it to efficiently collect and remove debris and dirt from public areas while minimizing dust and other pollutants.

Front View Street Sweeper Truck

Spraying System

The road surface is moistened with the water spraying mechanism before the brushes and vacuuming system are utilised, which is a standard feature in many street sweeper vehicles. The water spraying device makes sweeping more efficient and less hazardous to the environment and those close by reducing dust and other airborne particles.

A water tank and a spray system that sprays water onto the road surface in front of the brushes normally make up the water spraying mechanism. A second trailer that is pulled behind the street sweeper vehicle may or may not contain the water tank. The street sweeper truck’s size and frequency of usage both affect the water tank’s size and capacity.

To properly spread the water throughout the road surface, the spray system may employ a number of nozzles or jets. The spray nozzles may be adjusted to change the amount of water sprayed based on the state of the road surface and the quantity of debris being swept, and they can be controlled manually or automatically.

To assist break down and remove tough dirt and stains, the water used in the spraying system may be either plain water or water combined with a cleaning solution, such soap or detergent. Before using the brushes and vacuuming mechanism, certain street sweeper vehicles may additionally utilise a high-pressure water jet to blast away difficult waste, such as gum or asphalt.

Ultimately, a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system must include the water spraying mechanism, which functions in concert with the brushing and vacuuming systems to effectively remove dirt and debris from public spaces while reducing dust and other pollutants. The water spraying device makes the sweeping procedure more efficient and less hazardous to the environment and adjacent residents by moistening the road surface.

Disposal System

A street sweeper truck’s dumping mechanism is crucial because it enables the disposal of gathered waste in a secure and effective manner. The hopper or bin that holds the gathered waste is normally found at the back of the vehicle, where the dumping mechanism is situated.

Depending on the shape and size of the truck, street sweeper vehicles may use a number of dumping methods. A rear-tilting hopper is one popular kind of dumping mechanism that enables the operator to lift and tilt the hopper to empty the contents onto a specified dump spot. Depending on the size and weight of the hopper, the rear-tilting hopper may be controlled manually or hydraulically.

A side-dumping hopper is another form of dumping device that enables the operator to discharge the garbage on either side of the vehicle. Street sweeper vehicles that work in constrained areas, such as small streets or alleyways, where a rear-tilting hopper may not be practicable, frequently utilise side-dumping hoppers.

Street sweeper trucks may additionally contain a compaction system in addition to the dumping mechanism. This system compresses the gathered garbage to increase the quantity that can be kept in the hopper. The compaction system may utilise a vibrating mechanism to shake the hopper and compress the debris or it may employ a hydraulically powered ram to crush the rubbish.

The size of the hopper and the volume of material being gathered determine how frequently dumping occurs. Smaller vehicles might need to be emptied more regularly, but larger street sweeper trucks with high-capacity hoppers would be able to work for many hours before needing a dump.

Overall, the dumping mechanism is an essential component of a street sweeper truck’s cleaning system since it enables the disposal of the gathered material in a secure and effective manner. The dumping mechanism makes sure that the street sweeper vehicle can continue to work effectively, keeping public spaces clean and free of trash by making it easier to dispose of the gathered material.